Anna MacLeod is joined by guests who discuss their favourite books and why they have made an impact on their lives.
Type: Talk Show
Runtime: 30 minutes
Leugh Mi/Book Show - Canadian Gaelic - Netflix
Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic (Scottish Gaelic: Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in English as often simply Gaelic, refers to the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken by people in Atlantic Canada who have their origins in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. While there have been many different regional dialects of Scottish Gaelic that have been spoken in communities across Canada, Atlantic Canada is the only area in North America where Gaelic continues to be spoken as a community language, especially in Cape Breton. All of these dialects had their origins in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, although some have become effectively dormant since the time of emigration. Even in Cape Breton, the situation of the language is precarious. Scottish Gaels settled in Nova Scotia commencing in 1773 with the arrival of the Ship Hector and continuing up until the 1850s. Gaelic has been spoken for 241 years in Nova Scotia: on Cape Breton Island and on the northeastern Nova Scotia mainland. During the early 1900s, the Gaelic language was nearly wiped out in Canadian schools, due to the increasing pressure of the commonwealth English monarchy, who had previously exiled many Scots during earlier years of conflict. The Gaelic language was forbidden to be spoken in schools. The Gaelic cultural identity community is a vibrant part of Nova Scotia's diverse peoples and communities. Thousands of Nova Scotians attend Gaelic-related activities and events annually including: language workshops and immersions, milling frolics, square dances, fiddle and piping sessions, concerts and festivals. Up until about the turn of the 20th century, Gaelic was widely spoken on eastern Prince Edward Island (PEI). In the 2011 Canadian Census, 10 individuals in PEI cited that their mother tongue was a Gaelic language, with over 90 claiming to speak a Gaelic language. Gaels, their language and culture have influenced the heritage of Glengarry County and other regions in present-day Ontario, where many Highland Scots settled commencing in the 18th century, and to a much lesser extent the provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador (especially the Codroy Valley), Manitoba and Alberta. Gaelic-speaking poets in communities across Canada have produced a large and significant branch of Gaelic literature comparable to that of Scotland itself. Having its origins in Scotland, the Scottish Gaelic language is similar to, but should not be confused with, the Irish language in Newfoundland. At its peak in the mid-19th century, Scottish Gaelic, considered together with the closely related Newfoundland Irish, was the third most spoken language in Canada after English and French. In Atlantic Canada today, there are currently approximately 2,000 speakers, mainly in Nova Scotia. In terms of the total number of speakers in the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of “Gaelic languages” in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic. The 2011 census also reported that over 300 residents of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island considered a Gaelic language to be their “mother tongue”. Through its Office of Gaelic Affairs , a division of the Department of Communities, Culture and Heritage, the Government of Nova Scotia supports and promotes the language and culture of the Gaels of Nova Scotia. Gaelic Affairs' vision is that Nova Scotians reclaim their Gaelic language and identity as a basis for cultural, community, spiritual and economic renewal. To achieve this vision, Gaelic Affairs supports Nova Scotians in reclaiming Gaelic language and identity by creating awareness, working with partners and providing tools and opportunities to learn, share and experience Gaelic language and culture. Gaelic Affairs works in partnership with institutions and community organizations that pertain to Gaelic language and culture to establish programs and initiatives that provide opportunities for Nova Scotians to learn and use Gaelic and better appreciate and understand Gaelic cultural identity in Nova Scotia. There 24 organizations and six institutions with whom Gaelic Affairs works to promote and develop Gaelic language and culture in Nova Scotia. At the international level, there are 12 international organizations located in Scotland and Ireland with whom Gaelic Affairs is in regular communication. There are partnerships between the Scottish Government, Bòrd na Gàidhlig and the Highland Council (Scotland) and Gaelic Affairs, Nova Scotia. Gaelic Affairs works to strengthen and heighten the links between the Gaelic Triad – Ireland, Scotland and Nova Scotia. Since its creation, Gaelic Affairs' executive director has been Cape Breton-born and Antigonish county-raised Gaelic language and cultural advocate, poet and musician, Lewis MacKinnon. In 2011 MacKinnon became the first non-Scot to be crowned Bard (the Gaelic version of a national poet laureate) in the history of the Royal National Mòd.
Leugh Mi/Book Show - Red River colony - Netflix
In 1812, Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk obtained 300,000 square kilometres (120,000 sq mi) to build a colony at the forks of the Red River, in what would become Manitoba. With the help of his employee and friend, Archibald McDonald, Selkirk sent over 70 Scottish settlers, many of whom spoke only Gaelic, and had them establish a small farming colony there. The settlement soon attracted local First Nations groups, resulting in an unprecedented interaction of Scottish (Lowland, Highland, and Orcadian), English, Cree, French, Ojibwe, Saulteaux, and Métis traditions all in close contact. In the 1840s, Toronto Anglican priest John Black was sent to preach to the settlement, but “his lack of the Gaelic was at first a grievous disappointment” to parishioners. With continuing immigration the population of Scots colonists grew to more than 300, but by the 1860s the French-Métis outnumbered the Scots, and tensions between the two groups would prove a major factor in the ensuing Red River Rebellion. The continuing association between the Selkirk colonists and surrounding First Nations groups evolved into a unique contact language. Used primarily by the Anglo- and Scots-Métis traders, the “Red River Dialect” or Bungee was a mixture of Gaelic and English with many terms borrowed from the local native languages. Whether the dialect was a trade pidgin or a fully developed mixed language is unknown. Today the Scots-Métis have largely been absorbed by the more dominant French-Métis culture, and the Bungee dialect is most likely extinct.
Leugh Mi/Book Show - References - Netflix