This series aims to show people what the constituent parts of music do: melody, harmony, rhythm – and how the pieces fit together. It's for anyone who's ever tried to learn their favourite song at the piano, or who's tried to pick up the guitar or the trombone, for every kid who's starting out with music, or the merely curious to know why one piece of music might resemble another.

Howard Goodalls Twentieth Century Greats - Netflix

Type: Documentary

Languages: English

Status: Ended

Runtime: 60 minutes

Premier: 2004-11-27

Howard Goodalls Twentieth Century Greats - History of urban planning - Netflix

This article delineates the history of urban planning, a technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation and distribution networks. The history of urban planning runs parallel to the history of the city, as planning is in evidence at some of the earliest known urban sites.

Howard Goodalls Twentieth Century Greats - Modernism - Netflix

In the 1920s, the ideas of modernism began to surface in urban planning. The influential modernist architect Le Corbusier presented his scheme for a “Contemporary City” for three million inhabitants (Ville Contemporaine) in 1922. The centrepiece of this plan was the group of sixty-story cruciform skyscrapers, steel-framed office buildings encased in huge curtain walls of glass. These skyscrapers were set within large, rectangular, park-like green spaces. At the centre was a huge transportation hub that on different levels included depots for buses and trains, as well as highway intersections, and at the top, an airport. Le Corbusier had the fanciful notion that commercial airliners would land between the huge skyscrapers. He segregated pedestrian circulation paths from the roadways and glorified the automobile as a means of transportation. As one moved out from the central skyscrapers, smaller low-story, zig-zag apartment blocks (set far back from the street amid green space) housed the inhabitants. Le Corbusier hoped that politically minded industrialists in France would lead the way with their efficient Taylorist and Fordist strategies adopted from American industrial models to re-organise society. In 1925, he exhibited his “Plan Voisin”, in which he proposed to bulldoze most of central Paris north of the Seine and replace it with his sixty-story cruciform towers from the Contemporary City, placed within an orthogonal street grid and park-like green space. In the 1930s, Le Corbusier expanded and reformulated his ideas on urbanism, eventually publishing them in La Ville radieuse (The Radiant City) in 1935. Perhaps the most significant difference between the Contemporary City and the Radiant City is that the latter abandoned the class-based stratification of the former; housing was now assigned according to family size, not economic position. Le Corbusier's theories were sporadically adopted by the builders of public housing in Europe and the United States. Many of his disciples became notable in their own right, including painter-architect Nadir Afonso, who absorbed Le Corbusier's ideas into his own aesthetics theory. Lúcio Costa's city plan of Brasília and the industrial city of Zlín planned by František Lydie Gahura in the Czech Republic are notable plans based on his ideas, while the architect himself produced the plan for Chandigarh in India. Le Corbusier's thinking also had been profoundly effected by the philosophy of Futurism and Constructivism in Russia at the turn of the 20th century. Another important theorist was Sir Patrick Geddes who understood the importance of taking the regional environment into account and the relationship between social issues and town planning, and foresaw the emergence of huge urban conurbations. In 1927, he was commissioned to plan the city of Tel Aviv, then in Mandatory Palestine. It consisted of about 40 blocks, sized around 150 metres squared. The block contained an inner small public garden, disposed into a windmill configuration of inner access roads, making it awkward for car traffic. The big blocks form a gently undulating street pattern, north-south commercial, east-west arranged to catch the sea breeze. This was a simple and efficient manner to modernise the historical fixed grid patterns. A series of shaded boulevards short cuts the system, with some public squares, accessing the sea front. The plan of the new town became a success. Urban planning in communist countries has often modeled itself on Western modernism, using the authority of the state to implement efficient urban designs produced in administrative centers. (In Russia this process was nominally decentralized after the end of the USSR, but Moscow remains the source of much of the country's urban planning expertise.) Germany under national socialism also undertook grandiose schemes for urban redesign.

Howard Goodalls Twentieth Century Greats - References - Netflix